Which Drugs Affect Blood Glucose Levels? - 443 OTC & Prescription Meds (2022)

What drugs affect glucose levels? Many can, including steroids, anxiety and depression medications, statins, beta-blockers, some acne & asthma medications.

Knowing which drugs affect blood glucose levels is essential in properly caring for your diabetes patients. Some medicines raise blood sugar in patients while others might lower their levels. However, not all drugs affect patients the same way.

443 Drugs that can Affect Blood Glucose Levels is also available as a downloadable PDF.

Last Revised: 04/5/2020

Table of Contents:

Drugs that May Cause Hyperglycemia

Drugs that May Cause Hypoglycemia

Drugs that May Cause Hyper- or Hypoglycemia

Drugs that Mask Hypoglycemia

DiabetesinControl 2020©

Drugs That May Cause Hyperglycemia (High Blood Sugar)

Abacavir (Ziagen®)

Abacavir + lamivudine, zidovudine (Trizivir®)

Abacavir + dolutegravir + lamivudine (Triumeq®)

Abiraterone (Zytiga®)

Acetazolamide (Diamox®)

Acitretin (Soriatane®)

Albuterol (Ventolin®, Proventil®)

Albuterol + ipratropium (Combivent®)

Alectinib (Alecensa®)

Aliskiren + amlodipine + hydrochlorothiazide (Amturnide®)

Aliskiren + amlodipine (Tekamlo®)Ammonium chloride

Amphotericin B (Amphocin®, Fungizone®)

Amphotericin B lipid formulations IV (Abelcet®)

Amprenavir (Agenerase®)

Anidulafungin (Eraxis®)

Aripiprazole (Abilify®)

Arsenic trioxide (Trisenox®)

Asenapine (Saphris)

Asparaginase (Elspar®, Erwinaze®)

Atazanavir (Reyataz ®)

Atazanavir + cobistat (Evotaz®)

Atenolol + chlorthalidone (Tenoretic®)

Atorvastatin (Lipitor®)

Atovaquone (Mepron®)

Baclofen (Lioresal®)

Belatacept (Nulojix®)Benazepril + hydrochlorothiazide (Lotension®)

Betamethasone topical (Alphatrex®, Betatrex®, Beta-Val®, Diprolene®, Diprolene® AF, Diprolene® Lotion, Luxiq®, Maxivate®)

Drugs That May Cause Hyperglycemia (High Blood Sugar) – Continued

Betamethasone +clotrimazole (Lotrisone® topical)

Betaxolol Betoptic® eyedrops, (Kerlone® oral)

Bexarotene (Targretin®)

Bicalutamide (Casodex®)

Bisoprolol + hydrochlorothiazide (Ziac®)

Brentuximab vedotin (Adcetris®)

Budesonide (Uceris®)

Bumetanide (Bumex®)

Caffeine (Caffeine in moderation may be beneficial in diabetes, but in large amounts can raise blood sugar.)

Calcipotriene + betamethasone (Enstillar®)

Candesartan + hydrochlorothiazide (Atacand HCT®)Captopril + hydrochlorothiazide (Capozide®)

Carfilzomib (Kyprolis®)

Cariprazine (Vraylar)

Carteolol (Cartrol® oral, Occupress® eyedrops)

Carvedilol (Coreg®)

Caspofungin (Cancidas)

Ceftaroline (Teflaro®)

Ceftozolane + tazobactam (Zerbaxa)

Ceritinib (Zykadia)

Chlorothiazide (Diuril®)

Chlorthalidone (Chlorthalidone Tablets®, Clorpres®, Tenoretic®, Thalitone®)

Choline salicylate (Numerous tradenames of aspirin formulations; check the label)

Choline salicylate + magnesium salicylate (CMT®, Tricosal®, Trilisate®)

Ciprofloxacin (Cipro)

Clobetasol (Clobevate®, Cormax®, Cormax® Scalp Application, Embeline® E, Olux®, Temovate®, Temovate® E, Temovate® Scalp Application)

Clozapine (Clozaril®, FazaClo®)

Conjugated estrogens (Estrace®, Estring®, Femring®, Premarin®, Vagifem®, Cenestin®, Enjuvia®, Estrace®, Femtrace®, Gynodiol®, Menest®, Ogen®)

Conjugated estrogens + bazedoxifene (Duavee®)

Conjugated estrogens + medroxyprogesterone (Premphase®, Prempro®)

Corticosteroids (Numerous tradenames; check the label)

Corticotropin

Cortisone (Numerous tradenames; check the label)

Crizotinib (Xalkori)

Cyclosporine (Sandimmune®, Neoral®, Gengraf®)

Dabrafenib (Tafiniar®)

Daclizumab (Zenapax®)

Darunavir (Prezista)

Darunavir + cobistat (Prezcobix®)

Decitabine (Dacogen®)

Desonide (DesOwen®, Tridesilon®)

Desoximetasone (Topicort®)

Dexamethasone (Adrenocot®, Dalalone®, Decadron®, Decaject®, Dekasol®, Dexacort®, Dexasone®, Dexim®, Dexone®, Hexadrol®, Medidex®, Primethasone®, Solurex®, Dexamethasone Intensol®)

Dextromethorphan + promethazine (Phenergan® with Dextromethorphan, Phen- TussDM®)

Diazoxide (Proglycem®)

Dinutuximab (Unituxin®)

Dolutegravir (Tivicay®)

Enalapril + hydrochlorothiazide (Vaseretic®)Encainide (Enkaid®)

Ephedrine and Guaifenesin (Primatene ® tablets, otc – this medication includes ephedrine and guaifenesin. Guaifenesin is not responsible for hyperglycemia )

Epinephrine (EpiPen ®, EpiPen® Jr, Primatene® Mist, otc)

Esterified estrogens, estrone, estropipate

Esterified estrogens + methyltestosterone (Estratest®)

Estradiol, ethinyl estradiol (Alora®, Climara®, Congest®, Delestrogen®, Depo-Estradiol®, Depogen®, Estinyl®, Estrace®, Estraderm®, Estragyn 5®, Estragyn LA 5®, Estrasorb®, EstroGel®, Estro-L.A.®, Gynodiol®, Kestrone-

5®, Neo-Estrone®, Menest®, Menostar®, Ogen .625®, Ogen®, Ortho-Est®, Premarin®, Valergen®, Vivelle®, Vivelle-Dot®)

Estradiol + norethindrone (Activella®)

(Video) Pharmacology - DRUGS FOR DIABETES (MADE EASY)

Estradiol + norgestimate (Prefest®)

Estramustine (Emcyt®)

Ethacrynic acid (Edecrin®, Sodium Edecrin®)

Etravirine (Intelence)

Everolimus (Afinitor®, Zortress®)

Everolimus (Zortress®)

Ezetimibe, Atorvastatin (Liptruzet®)

Fidaxomicin (Dificid®)

Fluconazole (Diflucan)

Fluticasone (Arnuity Ellipta®)

Fluticasone + vilanterol (Breo Elipta®)

Fluoxetine (Prozac®, Sarafem®)

Flurandrenolide (Cordran®, Cordran® SP, Cordran® Tape)

Fluvastatin (Lescol, Lescol XR)

Formoterol (Foradil® Aerolizer® Inhaler)

Fosamprenavir (Lexiva ®)

Fosinopril + hydrochlorothiazide (Monopril HCT®)

Furosemide (Lasix®)

Gabapentin (Gralise®, Horizant®)

Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (Mylotarg®)

Glucosamine (Possible increase in insulin resistance; more likely with intravenous use)

Glycopyrrolate (Cuvposa®)

Hydrochlorothiazide (Aldactazide®, Aldoril®, Capozide®, Dyazide®, HydroDIURIL®, Inderide®, Lopressor® HCT, Maxzide®, Microzide®, Moduretic®, Timolide®, Vaseretic®)

Hydrochlorothiazide + irbesartan (Avalide®)

Hydrochlorothiazide + lisinopril (Prinzide®, Zestoretic®)

Hydrochlorothiazide + losartan (Hyzaar®)

Drugs That May Cause Hyperglycemia (High Blood Sugar) – Continued

Hydrochlorothiazide + metoprolol (Lopressor HCT®)

Hydrochlorothiazide + moexipril (Uniretic®)

Hydrochlorothiazide + quinapril (Accuretic®, Quinaretic®)

Hydrochlorothiazide + telmisartan (Micardis HCT®)

Hydrochlorothiazide + valsartan (Diovan HCT®)

Hydrocortisone (Numerous trade names of topical hydrocortisone formulations; check the label)

Iloperidone (Fanapt)

Indacaterol (Arcapta®)

Indapamide (Lozol®)

Indinavir (Crixivan®)

Interferon alfa-2a (Roferon-A®)

Interferon alfa-2b (Intron-A®)

Interferon alfa-2b + ribavirin (Rebetron®)

Interferon alfa-n1 (Alferon-N®)

Irinotecan (Camptosar®)

Isavuconazonium sulfate (Cresemba)

Isoniazid (Laniazid®, Nydrazid®)

Isotretinoin (Accutane®)

Itraconazole (Sporanox, Sporanox PuslePak, Tolsura)

Ketoconazole (Nizoral)

Liothyronine (Cytomel®)

Lamivudine (Epivir®, Epivir-HBV®)

Levalbuterol (Xoponex®, Xopenex HFA®)

Levonorgestrel (Plan B®, Norplant System®)

Levothyroxine (Synthroid®, Levoxyl®)

Lisinopril + Hydrochlorothiazide

Lopinavir + ritonavir (Kaletra®)

Lovastatin (Altoprev, Mevacor)

Lucinactant (Surfaxin®)

Lurasidone (Latuda®)

Magnesium salicylate (Bayer Select® Backache Pain Formula, Doans® Pills, Mobidin®, Nuprin® Backache Caplet)

Medroxyprogesterone (Provera®, Depo-Provera®)

Megestrol (Megace®)

Drugs That May Cause Hyperglycemia (High Blood Sugar) – Continued

Methylprednisolone (A-methaPred®, ADD-Vantage®, Depo-Medrol®, Medrol®,
Medrol® Dosepak, Meprolone® Unipak, Solu-Medrol®)

Metolazone (Zaroxolyn®, Mykrox®)

Metoprolol (Lopressor®, Lopressor® HCT, Toprol XL®)

Micafungin (Mycamine)

Modafinil (Provigil®)

Momentasone furoate + formoterol fumarate dihydrate (Dulera®)

Moxifloxacin (Avelox®, Avelox® I.V.)

Mycophenolate (CellCept®)

Nadolol (Corgard®)

Nelfinavir (Viracept®)

Netupitant + palonosetron (Akynzo®)

Niacin, niacinamide (Niacor®, Niaspan®, Nicolar®, Nicotinex®, Slo-Niacin®)

Nilotinib (Tasigna®)

Nilutamide (Nilandron®)

Nitric oxide (INOmax®)

Nivolumab (Opdivo®)

Norethindrone (Aygestin®, Nor-QD®, Micronor®)

Norgestrel (Orvette®)

Nystatin (Mycostatin®, Nystat-Rx®, Nystop®, Pedi-Dri®)

Nystatin + triamcinolone (Dermacomb®, Myco II®, Mycobiotic II®, Mycogen II®,
Mycolog II®, Myco-Triacet II®, Mykacet®, Mykacet II®, Mytrex®, Tristatin II®)

Octreotide (Sandostatin®, Sandostatin LAR®)

Olanzapine (Zyprexa®)

Olaparib (Lynparza®)

Olmesartan + amlodipine + hydrochlorothiazide (Tribenzor®)

Oxybutynin (Anturol®)

Oxycodone (Oxecta®)

Paliperidone (Invega, Invega Sustenna, Invega Trinza)

Panobinostat (Farydak®)

Pantoprazole (Protonix®, Protonix® I.V.)

Drugs That May Cause Hyperglycemia (High Blood Sugar) – Continued

Pegaspargase (Oncaspar®)

Peginterferon alfa-2b (PEG-Intron®, Sylatron®)

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Pembrolizumab (Keytrenda®)

Pentamidine (Pentam 300®)

Peramivir (Rapivab®)

Perindopril + amlodipine (Prestalia®)

Phenylephrine* (Sudafed PE®, and others)

Phenytoin (Dilantin®, Dilantin-125®, Dilantin Infatabs®, Dilantin Kapseals®, Phenytek®)

Pitavastatin (Livalo, Zypitamag)

Pomalidomide (Pomalyst®)

Posaconazole (Noxafil)

Pravastatin (Pravachol)

Prednisolone (AK-Pred®, Blephamide®, Blephamide®, Liquifilm®, Econopred® Plus, Inflamase® Forte, Inflamase® Mild, Poly-Pred® Liquifilm®, Pred Forte®, Pred Mild®, Pred-G®, Pred-G® Liquifilm®, Delta Cortef®, Pediapred®, Prelone®)

Prednisone (Prednisone Intensol®, Sterapred®, Sterapred® DS, Rayos DR®)

Progesterone (Prometrium®)

Pseudoephedrine* (Claritin D®, Sudafed®, and others)

Quetiapine (Seroquel®)

Risperidone (Risperdal®, Risperdal® M-TAB®)

* many other OTC and prescription medications contain pseudoephedrine and phenylephrine.

Ritodrine (Yutopar®)

Ritonavir (Norvir®)

Rituximab (Rituxan®)

Rosuvastatin (Crestor)

Salmeterol (Serevent®, Serevent® Diskus®)

Salsalate (Argesic®-SA, Disalcid®, Mono-Gesic®, Salflex®, Salsitab®)

Saquinavir (Invirase®)

Simvastatin (Zocor)

Simvastatin + ezetimibe (Vytorin)

Sodium oxybate (Xyrem®)

Somatropin (Genotropin®, Genotropin Miniquick®, Humatrope®, Norditropin artridges®, Norditropin NordiFlex®, Nutropin®, Nutropin AQ®, Saizen®, Serostim®, Zorbtive®)

Drugs That May Cause Hyperglycemia (High Blood Sugar) – Continued

Sonidegib (Odomzo®)

Sotalol (Betapace®, Betapace AF®, Sorine®)

Stavudine (Zerit)

Streptozocin (Zanosar®)

Tacrolimus (Prograf®, Protopic®)

Temsirolimus (Torisel®)

Tesamorelin (Egrifta®)

Thyroid (Armour Thyroid®, Naturethroid®)

Tiotropium + Olodaterol (Stiolto Respimat®)

Tipranavir (Aptivus®)

Tolvaptan (Samsca®)

Torsemide (Demadex®, Demadex Oral®)

Trametinib (Mekinist®)

Triamcinolone (Aristocort®, Aristospan®, Asthmacort®, Flutex®, Kenalog®, Tac®, Triacet®)

Umeclidium + vilanterol (Anoro Ellipta®)

Ursodeoxycholic acid, ursodiol (Actigall®, Urso®)

Valproic acid, divalproex sodium (Depacon®, Depakene®, Depakene® Syrup, Depakote®, Depakote® ER, Depakote® Sprinkle)

Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid, Ascorbate)

Vitamin E (Tocopherol, Tocotrienol)

Voriconazole (Vfend)

Zidovudine (Retrovir)

Ziprasidone (Geodone®)

Zolpidem (Intermezzo®)

Drugs That May Cause Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar)

Acebutolol (Sectral®)

Acetohexamide (Dymelor®)

Albiglutide (Tanzeum®)

Alcohol

Albiglutide (Tanzeum)

Aloe – Oral Herbal Supplement, especially if taken with other agents such as glyburide, glipizide, nateglinide, repaglinide, glimepiride, or insulin.

Alogliptin (Nesina®)

Alogliptin/pioglitazone (Oseni®)

Alogliptin/metformin (Kazano®)

Amphotericin B (Ambisome®, Amphocin®, Fungizone Intravenous® Amphotec®, Abelcet®)

Amphotericin B lipid formulations (Abelcet®, AmBisome®)

Aripiprazole (Aristada®)Asian Ginseng (Ginseng; Panax ginseng)

Aspirin (Numerous tradenames; check the label)

Aspirin + dipyridamole (Aggrenox®)

Atenolol (Tenormin®, Tenoretic® containing atenolol & chlorthalidone)

Benazepril (Lotensin)

Betaxolol (Betoptic®, Betoptic S® eyedrops, Kerlone® oral)

Bisoprolol (Zebeta®)

Bisoprolol + hydrochlorothiazide (Ziac®)

Brexpiprazole (Rexulti®)

Bromocriptine (Cycloset®)

Canagliflozin (Invokana®)

Canagliflozin + metformin (Invokamet®)

Chloramphenicol (Chloromycetin®)

Chlorpropamide (Diabinese®)

Choline salicylate (Acuprin 81®, Amigesic®, Anacin Caplets®, Anacin Maximum Strength®, Anacin Tablets®, Anaflex 750® Arthritis Pain, Ascriptin® Arthritis Pain)

Drugs That May Cause Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar) – Continued

Choline salicylate + magnesium salicylate C (MT®, Tricosal®, Trilisate®)

Chloramphenicol (Chloromycetin, Econochlor, Ocu-Chlor)Chloroquine (Aralen)

Chromium (Various tradenames; check the label)

Ciprofloxacin (Cipro)

Clarithromycin B (Biaxin® Filmtab®, Biaxin® Granules, Biaxin® XL, Filmtab,
Biaxin® XL Pac, Prevpac®)

Clofibrate (Atromid-S)

Colesevelam (Welchol)

Dalbavancin (Dalvance®)

Dapagliflozin (Farxiga®)

Dapagliflozin + Metformin (Xigduo XR®)

Diazoxide (Proglycem®)

Dicumarol (Coumadin®, Miradon®)

Diltiazem (Cardizem®, Tiazac®)

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Disopyramide (Norpace®, Norpace® CR)

Dorzolamide + timolol (Cosopt®)

Doxepin (Silenor®)

Dulaglutide (Trulicity®)

Empagliflozin (Jardiance®)

Empagliflozin/linagliptin (Glyxambi®)

Empagliflozin + metformin (Synjardy®)

Enalapril (Vasotec)

Ertugliflozin ( Steglatro)

Ertugliflozin + metformin (Segluromet)

Ertugliflozin + metformin + linagliptin (Trijardy)

Esmolol (Brevibloc)

Exenatide (Byetta®, Bydureon®)

Fluoxetine (Prozac®, Sarafem®)

Fosphenytoin (Cerebyx®, Dilantin®, Dilantin-125®, Dilantin Infatabs®, Dilantin Kapseals®, Mesantoin®, Peganone®, Phenytek®)

Gatifloxacin (Gatiflo, Tequin, Zymar)

Glimepiride (Amaryl®)

Glimepiride and Rosiglitazone (Avandaryl®)

Glimepiride + pioglitazone (Duetact)

Glipizide (Glucotrol®, Glucotrol XL®)

Glipizide and Metformin (Metaglip®)

Glucagon (GlucaGen®)

Glyburide (Diabeta®, Glynase®, Micronase®, Glycron®)

Glyburide + metformin (Glucovance®)

Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum)

Drugs That May Cause Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar) – Continued

Hydrochlorothiazide + metoprolol (Lopressor HCT®)

Hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil)

Indomethacin (Indocin)

Insulin (Lantus®, Levemir®, NPH®, Humulin®, Novolin®, Apidra®, Novolog®, Humalog®, Tresiba®, Afrezza®- inhaled, Abasaglar®, Ryzodeg®, Xultophy®- not FDA approved, Toujeo®, Locemia®- not FDA approved, V-go®)

Interferon beta-1b (Betaseron®)

Isavuconazonium (Cresemba®)

ITCA 650®- Not FDA approved

Lenvatinib (Lenvima®)

Levobunolol (AKBeta, Betagan, Vistagan)

Levofloxacin (Levaquin®, Levaquin® in Dextrose Injection Premix, Quixin®)

Linagliptin (Tradjenta®)

Linagliptin + empagliflozin (Glyxambi)

Linagliptin + metformin (Jentadueto®, Jentadueto XR)

Liraglutide (Victoza®, Saxenda®)

Liraglutide + insulin degludec (Xultophy)

Lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril, Qbrelis)

Lithium (Eskalith, Lithobid)

Lixisenatide (Lyxumia®)- currently approved in Europe

Lixisenatide/ insulin Glargine (Soliqua®)-

Lorcaserin (Belviq®)

Magnesium salicylate (Bayer Select® Backache Pain Formula, Doans® Pills, Mobidin®, Nuprin® Backache Caplet)

Metformin (Fortamet®, Glucophage®, Glucophage XR®, Glumetza®, Riomet®)

Metipranolol (Optipranolol)

metreleptin (Myalept®)

Metoprolol (Lopressor®, Lopressor® HCT, Toprol XL®)

Metreleptin (Myalept®)

Mifepristone (Korlym®)

Morphine (Kadian®, MS Contin®, MSIR®, Roxanol®)

Moxifloxacin (Avelox)

Nadolol (Corgard®)

Nateglinide (Starlix®)

Nebivolol (Bystolic)

Nifedipine (Adalat CC®, Procardia®, Afeditab ® CR)

Nivolumab (Opdivo®)

Norfloxacin (Noroxin)

Octreotide (Sandostatin®, Sandostatin LAR® Depot)

Ofloxacin (Oxuflox)

Oritavancin (Orbactiv®)

Drugs That May Cause Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar) – Continued

Paliperidone (Invega®)

Penicillamine (Cuprimine®, Depen®)

Pentamidine (Nebupent®, Pentam 300®)

Phenelzine (Nardil®)

Phenytoin (Dilantin®, Dilantin-125®, Dilantin Infatabs®, Dilantin Kapseals®, Phenytek®)

Pindolol (Visken®)

Pioglitazone (Actos®) –( hypoglycemia usually only when in combination with other diabetic drugs such as sulfonylureas or insulin)

Pioglitazone and Glimepiride (Duetact®) – the glimepiride component of this drug gives it the possibility of causing hypoglycemia alone or in combination with other diabetes medicines. This is more likely to occur when one skips a regular meal or when unusual physical activities occur.

Pioglitazone and Metformin (Actoplus Met®, ActoPlus Met XR®)

Pramlintide (Symlin®)

Pregabalin (Lyrica®)

Probenecid (Benemid®, Probalan®)

Propranolol (Inderal) Quinine (Quinamm®, Quindan®, Quiphile®, Q-vel®, Strema®)

Quinupristin + dalfopristin (Synercid®)

Repaglinide (Prandin®)

Repaglinide and Metformin (PrandiMet®)

Ritodrine (Yutopar®)

Rituximab (Rituxan®)

Rosiglitazone (Avandia®)

Rosiglitazone and Metformin (Avandamet®)

Rotigotine (Neupro®)

Salicylates (Numerous tradenames of aspirin formulations; check the label)

Salsalate (Argesic®-SA, Disalcid®, Mono-Gesic®, Salflex®, Salsitab®)

Saxagliptin (Onglyza®)

Saxagliptin + dapagliflozin (Qtern)

Drugs That May Cause Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar) – Continued

Saxagliptin + metformin (Kombiglyze XR®)

Saxagliptin + metformin + dapagliflozin (Qternmet XR)

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Selegiline (Eldepryl®)

Semaglutide- (Ozempic, Rybelsus)

Sitagliptin (Januvia®)

Sitagliptin + ertugliflozin (Steglujan)

Sitagliptin and Metformin HCL (Janumet®, Janumet XR)

Sodium ferric gluconate complex (Ferrlecit®)

Somatropin (Genotropin®, Genotropin Miniquick®, Humatrope®, Norditropin cartridges®, Norditropin NordiFlex®, Nutropin, Nutropin AQ®, Saizen®, Serostim®, Zorbtive®)Sotalol (Betapace®, Betapace AF®, Sorine®)

Streptozocin (Zanosar®)

Sulfadiazine (Microsulfon®)

Tacrolimus P (Prograf®, Protopic®)

Tetracaine (Altacaine®, Tetcaine®, Pontocaine®)

Theophylline (Theo-24®, Theo-Dur®, TheoCap®)

Timolol (Timoptic®, Timoptic-XE®)

Tolazamide (Tolinase®)

Tolbutamide (Orinase®)

Topiramate (Topamax)

Tranylcypromine (Parnate®)Varenicline (Chantix®)

Verapamil (Calan®, Calan SR®, Isoptin SR®, Verelan®)

Drugs that can cause Hyper- or Hypoglycemia

Amphotericin B (Ambisome®, Amphocin®, Fungizone Intravenous® Amphotec®, Abelcet®)

Amphotericin B lipid formulations (Abelcet®, AmBisome®)

Avanafil (Stendra®)

Axitinib (Inlyta®)

Betaxolol Betoptic® eyedrops, (KERLONE® oral)

Bisoprolol + hydrochlorothiazide (Ziac®)

Choline salicylate (Numerous tradenames of aspirin formulations; check the label)

Choline salicylate + magnesium salicylate (CMT®, Tricosal®, Trilisate®)

Ciprofloxacin (Otiprio®)

Darunavir (Prezista®)

Diazoxide (Proglycem®)

Doxepin (Silenor®)

Elvitegravir + cobicistat + emtricitabine + tenofovir (Stribild®)

Emtricitabine + rilpivirine + tenofovir (Complera®)

Fentanyl (Abstral®, Lazanda®, Subsys®)

Fluoxetine (Prozac®, Sarafem®)

Hydrochlorothiazide + metoprolol (Lopressor HCT®)

Ivacaftor (Kalydeco®)

Lanreotide acetate (Somatuline®)

Lenalidomide (Revlimid®)

Lisinopril + Hydrochlorothiazide

Lithium (Eskalith®, Eskalith CR®, Lithobid®)

Magnesium salicylate (Bayer Select® Backache Pain Formula, Doans® Pills, Mobidin®, Nuprin® Backache Caplet)

Mecasermin (Increlex ®)

Mecasermin Rinfabate (Iplex ®)

Metoprolol (Lopressor®, Lopressor® HCT, Toprol XL®)

Nadolol (Corgard®)

Naproxen + esomeprazole (Vimovo®)

Drugs that can cause Hyper- or Hypoglycemia – Continued

Octreotide (Sandostatin®, Sandostatin LAR® Depot)

Omacetaxine (Synribo®)

Oxcarbazepine (Oxtellar XR®)

Oxycodone + acetaminophen (Xartemis®)

Pancrelipase (Ultresa®, Viokace®)

Paroxetine (Brisdelle®)

Pasireotide (Signifor®)

Pazopanib (Votrient ®)

Pentamidine (Nebupent®, Pentam 300®)

Phenytoin (Dilantin®, Dilantin-125®, Dilantin Infatabs®, Dilantin Kapseals®, Phenytek®)

Ponatinib

Rifampin (Rifadin®, Rimactane®)

Ritodrine (Yutopar®)

Rituximab (Rituxan®)

Salsalate (Argesic®-SA, Disalcid®, Mono-Gesic®, Salflex®, Salsitab®)

Sitagliptin + simvastatin (Juvisync®)

Sunitinib (Sutent®)

Somatropin (Genotropin®, Genotropin Miniquick®, Humatrope®, Norditropin cartridges®, Norditropin NordiFlex®, Nutropin®, Nutropin AQ®, Saizen®, Serostim®, Zorbtive®)

Sotalol (Betapace®, Betapace AF®, Sorine®)

Streptozocin (Zanosar®)

Sunitinib (Sutent®)

Pancrelipase (Pancreaze®)

Pasireotide (Signifor®)

Pegloticase (Krystexxa®)

Tacrolimus P (Prograf®, Protopic®)

Testosterone gel (Fortesta®)

Drugs that can cause Hyper- or Hypoglycemia – Continued

Testosterone (Aveed®, Natesto®, Vogelxo®)

Topiramate (Qudexy®)

Vandetanib (Vandetanib®)

Drugs that can MASK* Hypoglycemia

Atenolol (Tenormin®, Tenoretic® containing Atenolol & Chlorthalidone)

Carteolol (Cartrol® oral, Occupress® eyedrops)

Carvedilol (Coreg®, Coreg® Tiltabs®)

Clonidine (Duraclon®, Catapres®, Catapres-TTS-1®, Catapres-TTS-2®, Catapres-TTS-3®)

Metoprolol (Lopressor®, Lopressor® HCT, Toprol XL®)

Nadolol (Corgard®)

Nebivolol (Bystolic®)

Pindolol (Visken®)

Propranolol, Propranolol Hydrochloride, (Inderal®, Inderal LA®, Inderide®, Innopran® XL, Intensol®)

Timolol (Timoptic®, Timoptic-XE®)

_________________

* Recent research suggests that this may not occur.

__________________

Because of the continually changing nature of the U.S. prescription and OTC drug marketplace, this list may not reflect the full range of drugs that may impact blood glucose levels. The information contained in this document is intended as an educational aid only. It is not intended as medical advice for individual conditions or treatment. It is not a substitute for a medical exam, nor does it replace the need for services provided by medical professionals. Talk to your doctor, nurse, or pharmacist before taking any prescription or over-the-counter drugs (including any herbal medicines or supplements) or following any treatment or regimen.

References:

(Video) OET 2.0 Listening Test With Answers 2022 /Test 438 OET Listening Sample Tests for Nurses/Doctors#OET

FAQs

What blood pressure meds cause high blood sugar? ›

Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) and chlorthalidone are diuretics used to lower blood pressure but may increase your risk for high blood sugar and diabetes.

Which 3 medications are used to regulate blood glucose levels treat diabetes? ›

What Are the Best Drugs to Treat Diabetes?
  • Insulin (long- and rapid-acting)
  • Metformin (biguanide class)
  • Glipizide (sulfonylurea class)
26 Jul 2020

Which diabetic medication has the highest risk of causing hypoglycemia? ›

The highest risks of hypoglycemia have been associated with sulfonylureas and meglitinides, both secondary to increasing the amount of circulating insulin in the body.

What medications should diabetics avoid? ›

Certain antibiotics, including rifampin and isoniazid. Some high blood pressure medicines, such as calcium channel blockers, beta-blockers, and thiazide diuretics. Corticosteroids. Estrogen.
...
Other medicines, when combined with a TZD, may raise your chance of having heart problems:
  • NSAIDs.
  • Sulfonylureas.
  • Nitrates.
17 Apr 2022

What painkillers can diabetics not take? ›

(2021). Choosing wisely: Avoid nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in individuals with hypertension or heart failure or chronic kidney disease of all causes, including diabetes.

What is the new pill for diabetes? ›

Tirzepatide is the first drug in a new class of diabetes medications. It is a dual glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and GLP-1 receptor agonist. GLP-1 and GIP are gut hormones called incretins, and the intestines release them when we eat.

What is the best medicine to lower a1c? ›

  • Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. Acarbose (Precose) and miglitol (Glyset) are alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. ...
  • Biguanides. Metformin (Glucophage) is a biguanide. ...
  • Bile Acid Sequestrants (BASs) ...
  • Dopamine-2 Agonists. ...
  • DPP-4 Inhibitors. ...
  • Meglitinides. ...
  • SGLT2 Inhibitors. ...
  • Sulfonylureas.

Can vitamins raise blood sugar? ›

A number of over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription drugs — even some vitamins and supplements — can raise blood sugar.

What is the normal blood sugar level for a 70 year old? ›

Normal ranges of blood sugar levels are between 70 and 130 mg/dL before eating meals. The American Diabetes Association recommends seniors have blood glucose levels of less than 180 mg/dL two hours after eating. Not every senior has the same care needs, which means they don't all need the same type of at-home care.

What can I take instead of metformin? ›

Other alternatives to metformin
  • Avandia (rosiglitazone)
  • Nesina (alogliptin)
  • Tanzeum (albiglutide)
  • Jardiance (empagliflozin)
  • Invokana (canagliflozin)
  • Farxiga (dapagliflozin)
21 Mar 2022

What is the most prescribed medication for type 2 diabetes? ›

Metformin (Fortamet, Glumetza, others) is generally the first medication prescribed for type 2 diabetes. It works primarily by lowering glucose production in the liver and improving your body's sensitivity to insulin so that your body uses insulin more effectively.

At what A1C should you start metformin? ›

Recent guidelines recommend considering use of metformin in patients with prediabetes (fasting plasma glucose 100-125 mg/dL, 2-hr post-load glucose 140-199 mg/dL, or A1C 5.7-6.4%), especially in those who are <60 years old, have a BMI >35 kg/m2, or have a history of gestational diabetes.

What do I add to metformin to lower my A1C? ›

There was moderate evidence favoring metformin plus a GLP-1 receptor agonist over metformin plus a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitor for reducing A1C levels [21].

What are the three classic signs of hypoglycemia? ›

Initial signs and symptoms of diabetic hypoglycemia include: Looking pale (pallor) Shakiness. Dizziness or lightheadedness.

How do you lower your blood sugar immediately? ›

When your blood sugar level gets too high — known as hyperglycemia or high blood glucose — the quickest way to reduce it is to take fast-acting insulin. Exercising is another fast, effective way to lower blood sugar.
...
Eat a consistent diet
  1. whole grains.
  2. fruits.
  3. vegetables.
  4. lean proteins.
12 Aug 2020

What is the safest drug for diabetes? ›

Official answer. Most experts consider metformin to be the safest medicine for type 2 diabetes because it has been used for many decades, is effective, affordable, and safe. Metformin is recommended as a first-line treatment for type 2 diabetes by the American Diabetes Association (ADA).

Can a diabetic live without medication? ›

Official answer. Some people can control and manage type 2 diabetes without medicine, but many others will need diabetes medications along with lifestyle changes. If you are newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, your provider may first recommend that you manage your diabetes using lifestyle changes only.

What is the best OTC pain reliever for diabetics? ›

Drugs such as Acetaminophen, aspirin, ibuprofen, or naproxen can all be used to ease mild to moderate pain associated with diabetic neuropathy.

What painkiller is good for diabetics? ›

NSAIDS,aspirin,ibuprofen,naproxen etc can be taken by diabetics safely. Although, one should keep in mind that painkillers if used excessively can have side effects such as stomach ulcer, kidney damage.

Can pain meds cause high glucose? ›

You also need to be careful about any pain relieving medication that you take, even if it's just on an occasional basis, because certain types of pain killers can lower or raise your blood sugar levels.

Is there a better medication than metformin? ›

Insulin remains the most effective therapy to lower glucose, particularly in comparison to most oral medicines for type 2 (including metformin).

What is the new weight loss drug for diabetics? ›

New research demonstrates that the diabetes drug semaglutide is also effective for weight loss and may help prevent people from developing type 2 diabetes.

Why can't I get my blood sugar down? ›

Large meals high in both carbohydrates and fat

Eating a large meal that is high in both carbohydrates, which are metabolized relatively quickly, and fats, which take more time to digest, can cause a prolonged elevation in blood glucose.

What vitamins help lower A1C? ›

Vitamin D

After two months of taking a 4,500-IU supplement of vitamin D daily, both fasting blood sugar and A1C improved. In fact, 48% of participants had an A1C that showed good blood sugar control, compared to only 32% before the study ( 20 ).

At what A1C do you start insulin? ›

Insulin should be initiated when A1C is ≥7.0% after 2–3 months of dual oral therapy. The preferred regimen for insulin initiation in type 2 diabetes is once-daily basal insulin. In addition to timely initiation, rapid titration of the dose is indispensable for successful insulin therapy.

How high does your A1C have to be to be put on insulin? ›

Insulin therapy will often need to be started if the initial fasting plasma glucose is greater than 250 or the HbA1c is greater than 10%.

Can low vitamin D cause high blood sugar? ›

Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to prediabetes, which is a blood glucose, or sugar, level that is too high but not high enough to be considered diabetes. It is unclear, however, if bringing low vitamin D blood levels to normal through supplementation will affect progression to diabetes.

Does vitamin D Help glucose levels? ›

Vitamin D supplementation may help lower average blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes; and is especially effective in people who also have a vitamin D deficiency, and are non-obese and deficient. Supplementation for more than 12 weeks at ≥ 1000 IU/day may be most beneficial.

What is the best vitamin for diabetics? ›

What are the best vitamins for people with diabetes?
  • Thiamin (b1) Those with type 1 or type 2 diabetes are more likely to have lower blood levels of thiamin and usually suffer a higher risk of thiamin deficiency than people who don't have diabetes. ...
  • Vitamin B12. ...
  • Vitamin D. ...
  • Magnesium. ...
  • Vitamin E. ...
  • Vitamin C.
8 Apr 2021

What should an 80 year olds blood sugar be? ›

For most older adults, 90–150 mg/dL is a reasonable fasting glucose target range.

How many years a diabetic person can live? ›

Amongst those who are currently 65 years old, the average man can expect to live until 83 years old and the average woman to live until 85 years old. People with type 1 diabetes have traditionally lived shorter lives, with life expectancy having been quoted as being reduced by over 20 years.

What is a normal A1C for a 60 year old woman? ›

A normal A1C level is below 5.7%. Normal eAG is below 117 mg/dL or 6.5 mmol/L. If someone's A1C levels are higher than normal, they may have diabetes or prediabetes. Their doctor might order a repeat test to confirm this.

Does metformin harm your kidneys? ›

Metformin doesn't cause kidney damage. The kidneys process and clear the medication out of your system through your urine. If your kidneys don't function properly, there's concern that metformin can build up in your system and cause a condition called lactic acidosis.

How long can you stay on metformin? ›

As your cells absorb less sugar, it builds up in the blood. Metformin reverses that process. Your doctor will probably start you off on a low dose and work you up to the maximum dose over a period of 4 weeks, and that's where you will stay (if you can tolerate it) for the rest of your life.

What are the long term side effects of metformin? ›

Long-term side effects

Taking metformin can cause vitamin B12 deficiency if you take it for a long time. This can make you feel very tired, breathless and faint, so your doctor may check the vitamin B12 level in your blood. If your vitamin B12 levels become too low, vitamin B12 supplements will help.

What medications can raise blood sugar levels? ›

Medicines That Increase Blood Sugar:

Antidepressants (Zyprexa, risperdal, Clozaril, Seroquel, Abilify, Geodon, lithium) Beta-2 stimulators (Proventil, Alupent, Serevent, Foradil, Brethine, Theo-Dur) Caffeine. Corticosteroids (Prednisone, Decadron, DepoMedrol)

What is the safest oral medication for type 2 diabetes? ›

Metformin is a tried and tested medicine that has been used for many decades to treat type 2 diabetes, and is recommended by most experts as first-line therapy. It is affordable, safe, effective, and well tolerated by most people.

What is the most common oral medication for diabetes? ›

Metformin is a type of biguanide and it is currently the only biguanide available in the United States. It is often the first oral medicine prescribed for someone newly diagnosed with diabetes. It has the advantage of not causing low blood sugar.

How can I flush sugar out of my system fast? ›

Studies show that drinking plenty of water helps glucose flush out of the blood. The average person should aim for eight glasses per day. Drinking plenty of water while you are indulging your sweet tooth — and throughout the day after — will help your body get back to normal.

Can drinking a lot of water lower your blood sugar? ›

Drinking water regularly may rehydrate the blood, lower blood sugar levels, and reduce diabetes risk ( 20 , 21 ). Keep in mind that water and other zero-calorie drinks are best. Avoid sugar-sweetened options, as these can raise blood glucose, drive weight gain, and increase diabetes risk ( 22 , 23 ).

What medications cause hypoglycemia? ›

Medicines that can cause drug-induced low blood sugar include:
  • Beta-blockers (such as atenolol, or propranolol overdose)
  • Cibenzoline and quinidine (heart arrhythmia drugs)
  • Glinides (such as nateglinide and repaglinide)
  • Indomethacin (a pain reliever)
  • Insulin.
  • Metformin when used with sulfonylureas.
11 Oct 2020

Can vitamins raise blood sugar? ›

A number of over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription drugs — even some vitamins and supplements — can raise blood sugar.

How long does it take cinnamon to lower blood sugar? ›

The addition of 1, 3, or 6 g of cinnamon to the diet led to significant decreases in serum glucose levels after 40 days.

Are grapes good for diabetics? ›

Grapes are adored, nourishing fruits and are safe for diabetics. People can eat them and add them to their diabetic diets as they do not harm or spike glucose levels. Consuming grapes help to reduce the susceptibility to developing type 2 diabetes.

What supplements help with sugar withdrawal? ›

Supplements and Sugar

Nutrients that can help reduce sugar cravings and the symptoms of sugar withdrawal are the B vitamins, vitamin C, zinc, the trace mineral chromium, and the amino acid L-glutamine.

What should I do if my blood sugar is over 400? ›

When to see a doctor. According to the University of Michigan, blood sugar levels of 300 mg/dL or more can be dangerous. They recommend calling a doctor if you have two readings in a row of 300 or more. Call your doctor if you're worried about any symptoms of high blood sugar.

What time of day is blood sugar highest? ›

The dawn phenomenon, also called the dawn effect, is the term used to describe an abnormal early-morning increase in blood sugar (glucose) — usually between 2 a.m. and 8 a.m. — in people with diabetes.

Does peeing lower blood sugar? ›

Too much sugar in your blood is extremely taxing on the kidneys, which work to reabsorb sugar into the bloodstream. When the kidneys can't reabsorb all the sugar correctly, urination helps eliminate much of that glucose from the body.

What causes blood sugar to rise without eating? ›

Coffee—even without sweetener. Some people's blood sugar is extra-sensitive to caffeine. Losing sleep—even just one night of too little sleep can make your body use insulin less well. Skipping breakfast—going without that morning meal can increase blood sugar after both lunch and dinner.

What is the best medicine to lower A1C? ›

  • Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. Acarbose (Precose) and miglitol (Glyset) are alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. ...
  • Biguanides. Metformin (Glucophage) is a biguanide. ...
  • Bile Acid Sequestrants (BASs) ...
  • Dopamine-2 Agonists. ...
  • DPP-4 Inhibitors. ...
  • Meglitinides. ...
  • SGLT2 Inhibitors. ...
  • Sulfonylureas.

What drugs should not be taken with metformin? ›

Other things to avoid while on metformin
  • carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, such as acetazolamide.
  • corticosteroids, such as prednisone.
  • blood pressure medication, such as amlodipine (Norvasc)
  • anticonvulsants, such as topiramate (Topamax) and zonisamide (Zonegran)
  • oral contraceptives.
  • antipsychotic drugs, such as chlorpromazine.

Can low vitamin D cause high blood sugar? ›

Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to prediabetes, which is a blood glucose, or sugar, level that is too high but not high enough to be considered diabetes. It is unclear, however, if bringing low vitamin D blood levels to normal through supplementation will affect progression to diabetes.

Does vitamin D Help glucose levels? ›

Vitamin D supplementation may help lower average blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes; and is especially effective in people who also have a vitamin D deficiency, and are non-obese and deficient. Supplementation for more than 12 weeks at ≥ 1000 IU/day may be most beneficial.

What is the best vitamin for diabetics? ›

What are the best vitamins for people with diabetes?
  • Thiamin (b1) Those with type 1 or type 2 diabetes are more likely to have lower blood levels of thiamin and usually suffer a higher risk of thiamin deficiency than people who don't have diabetes. ...
  • Vitamin B12. ...
  • Vitamin D. ...
  • Magnesium. ...
  • Vitamin E. ...
  • Vitamin C.
8 Apr 2021

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